The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a pet and is kept as a domestic animal.
Its wild master form is the wolf, to which it is assigned as a subspecies. When the domestication took place, there is controversy; Scientific estimates vary between 15,000 and 100,000 years before our time.
In the narrower sense, the domestic dog is the dog, which is kept predominantly in the house, and thus marks an attitude. Historically, a dog, which is kept to guard the house, was called a house-dog. A further use of the term is the restriction to socialized (domestic) dogs, ie dogs, which are accustomed to the coexistence with humans in the human society and adapted to it. Thus the domestic dog is demarcated against wild, depraved or strayed dogs, which are also domesticated but not socialized.
The dingo is also a domestic dog, but is temporarily managed as an independent subspecies of the wolf.
The term "socialization" is also used in dogs to describe the process by which the dog deals with its environment, acquires its rules, and makes commitments. Socialization takes place particularly intensively during the first months of life. Already at the puppy - assuming appropriate conditions of condition - the following processes take place:
- Socialization with fellow-citizens (learning of interpersonal communication)
- Socialization with other animals (cats, guinea pigs, birds, horses)
- Socialization with (foreign) people
- Habituation to environmental stimuli such as sirens, bike rattles, aircrafts, boom sounds (New Year's Eve cracker) as well as getting used to crowds or traffic gangs
The most important phase of socialization of the dog extends from about the 3rd to the 12th week of life.
The basis is the maturation of the sense organs and the development of motor skills. Socialization with people of the same kind takes place with three to eight weeks a little earlier than with humans (5th - 12th week).
During this time, dogs learn new behaviors and develop typical movements for adult dogs as well as food intake, faeces and urine sales behavior. They learn the bodily body language, show playful barking and biting, learn the bite inhibition and the reading of the human body language. The development of each dog is mainly determined by its socialization and education. Socialization processes, which do not take place during the first 14 weeks, can not be fully recovered. A dog without socialization up to the 14th week of life is virtually neither trainable nor trainable. However, with the socialization phase the acquisition of social skills is not completed, and they are maintained only by lifelong social interactions.
Based on a recommendation from Scott and Fuller from 1965, the opinion has been developed that it is good to separate puppies from mother and siblings by the age of eight weeks at the latest. Ádám Miklósi argues that there is no reason to make the separation so early, especially if the puppy has better conditions for socialization at the breeder than at the later owner, since socialization at this age of the dogs is not yet specific to certain people , And dogs, which have good experiences with people, can be socialized with other people.